George Eliot and Harriet Beecher Stowe

Mary Ann Evans, as she was born, did not easily inspire friendship amongst her fellow nineteenth century female novelists. Even before she found fame as an author, George Eliot was firmly entrenched in a London social circle that was unconventional, intellectual and predominantly male.

George Eliot, painted by Aged 30 by the Swiss artist Alexandre Louis François d'Albert Durade (Creative Commons Licence)
George Eliot, painted by Alexandre Louis François d’Albert Durade (Creative Commons Licence)

There was also the matter of her living ‘in sin’ with critic and philosopher George Henry Lewes – a state that kept many ‘respectable ladies’ away from her door. Elizabeth Gaskell, for instance, though she wrote to Eliot to praise her books Adam Bede and Scenes of Clerical Life, couldn’t help lamenting that ‘I wish you were Mrs Lewes’.

But perhaps the greatest obstacle to friendship was her formidable, and intimidating, reputation. Eliot had previously written to Gaskell to congratulate her on Mary Barton and Cranford, but she was often less generous to other female authors of the era.

Withering public pronouncements, for instance in her essay ‘Silly Novels by Lady Novelists’ (1856), can have offered little encouragement to the majority of writing women who might have wanted to get to know her better.

Some, though, were undeterred, including the author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe, who first wrote to her in 1869. Though this was their first direct contact, Stowe greeted Eliot as ‘my dear friend’, then quickly moved from opening pleasantries to praise but also bold suggestions about the British writer’s books, which she said she had recently re-read ‘carefully pencil in hand’.

Harriet Beecher Stowe by Gurney & Sons (Bowdoin College Museum of Art) (Creative Commons Licence)
Harriet Beecher Stowe by Gurney & Sons (Bowdoin College Museum of Art) (Creative Commons Licence)

Perhaps surprisingly, given Eliot’s well-known reserve, her response was enthusiastic. It marked the start of an eleven-year friendship that would continue until her death.

At first, it’s difficult to understand what could have drawn these two together. They must have quickly realised they’d never have an opportunity to meet. Although in that first letter, Stowe implored Eliot to visit America, the ill health of Lewes and Calvin Ellis Stowe meant neither felt able to travel far from home.

Their personalities were markedly different too, as were their views on religion. Stowe was a staunch Christian, whereas Eliot had stopped attending church as a young woman when her critical reading had convinced her to abandon her earlier evangelical fervour.

What seems to have cemented the relationship is a willingness to concentrate on areas in which their lives did converge: their status as hugely successful female authors, ‘marriages’ to eccentric intellectuals, and their interest in literature.

Communicating long-distance naturally meant enforced pauses in conversation, allowing Eliot to skirt away from trickier subjects, such as Stowe’s ardent enthusiasm for spiritualism, although she did take her more firmly to task on the occasion when Stowe wrote of being visited by the ghost of Charlotte Brontë, telling her that ‘whether rightly or not’ the account struck her as ‘enormously improbable’.

Their physical separation must also have made it easier than if they’d lived in the same country for Stowe to regard Lewes and Eliot simply as husband and wife. And it turned Eliot into an ideal confidante when on two occasions – Stowe’s notorious essay alleging incest between Byron and his sister, and later, her clergyman brother’s alleged adultery – the American author found herself the subject of explosive social scandal.

Sometimes there were significant gaps in their correspondence, but in each case the pair seems to have picked up the conversation again with little trouble, and the endurance of this unexpected friendship certainly throws a fascinating new light on the intellectual and private lives of these two nineteenth century literary giants.


George Eliot was far from convinced by Harriet Beecher Stowe’s assertion that she’d been visited by the ghost of Charlotte Brontë. Although we share her scepticism, something about this episode in their letters intrigued us. And so this month we’ll each be asking ourselves from which of the deceased authors we’ve featured on Something Rhymed we’d most welcome the chance of a visit.

32 thoughts on “George Eliot and Harriet Beecher Stowe

  1. I’m really loving these portraits of female writers supporting one another – it struck me that maybe they initially connected because Stowe dared to make suggestions about Eliot’s books! We’re coming up to Halloween, which is a time for honouring our ancestors, so my thoughts always turn to which of the creative women who went before me I would invite to visit – Anne Sexton and Maya Angelou would be two women I’d like to visit with.

    1. Thanks so much for getting in touch, Andrea. Emma Claire and I were particularly interested in which women you’d most like to invite to visit you. We’re really looking forward to posting our own thoughts on the subject later in the month.

  2. Love this post – casting a different light on the brilliant but unsympathetic Eliot whom I thought probably had no female friends! This has encouraged me to now find out more about Stowe.

    1. Thanks ericamidori. Your earlier assumption that Eliot had hardly any female friends is not an uncommon one, but our reading of her letters and diaries paints a rather different picture. It has been fascinating for us to research this often overlooked, and yet highly significant, literary friendship. We’re really glad you enjoyed the post.

  3. Don’t we all make our own ’ghosts’, by bonding so intensely with people from the past? – Difficult to choose one particular visitor, there are so many I could make up a party! In fact, I’m going to host a ’George Eliot Birthday Party’ on the 22nd – and if dreams count as hauntings, then I’ve been visited by her (and Lewes, and Spencer) in a most vivid dream of the occasion when both Spencer and Lewes came to see her, but Lewes said he would stay … an amusing detail was, that Spencer was in sober Victorian garb, but she and Lewes were in 1970s hippie outfit, complete with shi-sha embroidery. Taking of garments and embroidery: I made an embroidered biographical dress for her, which may be seen on YouTub under George Eliot – A Life in a Dress.

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